Title=eye doctor, optometrist, ophthalmologist
eye doctor, optometrist, ophthalmologist
Ophthalmologist – An eye surgeon who is a Doctor of Medicine (MD) or Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (DO). In the US, this requires four years of college, four years of medical school, one year general internship, three years of residency, then optional fellowship for 1 to 2 years (typically 12–14 years of education after high school). An ophthalmologist can perform all the tests an optometrist can and in addition is a fully qualified medical doctor and surgeon. Ophthalmologists undergo extensive and intensive medical and surgical exams to qualify and entrance criteria to a training program is highly competitive.
Ophthalmic medical practitioner – A medical doctor (MD) who specializes in ophthalmic conditions but who has not completed a specialization in ophthalmology.
Optometrist – A Doctor of Optometry (OD) treats eye diseases and disorders and specializes in optics and vision correction. Permissions granted by an optometric license vary by location:
In the United States, the standard education is four years of college and four years of optometry school at an accredited Doctor of Optometry (OD) program. An additional one to two years of residency, fellowship and/or specialty training is required to qualify for certain positions. All optometry colleges in the U.S. currently provide training in the diagnosis and treatment of eye diseases and level 1[clarification needed] in office surgical procedures.
In the United States, optometrists are defined as physicians under Medicare, but laws pertaining to optometry vary by state.
All states allow treatment of eye diseases, including the use of topical pharmaceuticals (by properly licensed optometrists)
47 states allow prescription of oral medications to treat eye diseases
Some states allow optometrists to perform injections in and around the eye
Oklahoma and Kentucky allow optometrists to perform certain laser surgeries.
Outside of the United States, optometrists are often limited in their use of pharmaceuticals. In most of these countries, optometry is either a 4 year or 5 year college degree and they are not classified as doctors (except in the Philippines).
Orthoptist – Specializes in diagnosis and management of eye movement and coordination problems, misalignment of the visual axis, convergence and accommodation problems, and conditions such as amblyopia, stribisums, and binocular vision disorders, as outlined by the International Orthoptic Association. They may assist ophthalmologists in surgery, teach orthoptic students, students of other allied health professions, medical students, and ophthalmology residents and fellows, act as vision researchers, perform vision screening, perform low vision assessments and act as clinical administrators.
In many countries orthoptic education requires an undergraduate degree for program entry followed by a couple years of postgraduate studies in orthoptics
In other countries orthoptics is offered as a Masters degree.
Ocularist – Specialize in the fabrication and fitting of ocular prostheses for people who have lost eyes due to trauma or illness.
Optician – Specializes in the fitting and fabrication of ophthalmic lenses, spectacles, contact lenses, low vision aids and ocular prosthetics. They may also be referred to as an "optical dispenser", "dispensing optician", "ophthalmic dispenser". The prescription for the corrective lenses must be supplied by an ophthalmologist, optometrist or in some countries an orthoptist. This is a regulated profession in most jurisdictions.
Ophthalmic Medical Personnel – A collective term for allied health personnel in ophthalmology. It is often used to refer to specialized personnel (unlike ocularists or opticians).
In many countries these allied personnel may just be known as an "ophthalmic assistant". Their training is usually combined with a two or three year applied science degree and they assist an ophthalmologist or orthoptist in the hospital or clinic with vision testing.
In the USA the Joint Commission on Allied Health Personnel in Ophthalmology administers OMP certifications:
Certified Ophthalmic Assistant (COA) – entry level
Certified Ophthalmic Technician (COT) – intermediate level
Certified Ophthalmic Medical Technologist (COMT) – advanced level
a gross oversimplification, it can be said that ophthalmologists treat eye diseases while optometrists treat vision. This allows for considerable overlap in care because most eye diseases affect vision, and many problems with vision are signs of disease. Laws regarding licensure vary by location, but typically ophthalmologists are licensed to provide the same care as an optometrist, with the addition of surgical options. In most locations surgery is the biggest difference between the two professions. Optometrists frequently refer patients to ophthalmologists when the condition requires surgery or intraocular injection.
Historically, ophthalmology has developed as a specialization of medical doctors while optometry originated as a profession that fitted people with glasses. As of 2012, this difference has decreased as the majority of optometrists screen for and treat eye disease and many ophthalmologists fit people with corrective lenses. This difference in background previously caused some conflict between the two professions. Ophthalmologists have voiced concern that an optometrist's educational background is different from their own. Optometrists have criticized ophthalmologists of caring for the health structure of the eye while letting other vision disorders go untreated. For example, consider a patient with glaucoma and spasm of accommodation. Ophthalmologists would be concerned that an optometrist would fail to identify or otherwise mistreat the glaucoma. Optometrist would worry that the ophthalmologist would fail to identify or mistreat the spasm of accommodation. As of 2012, both these concerns are invalid because t
he education of both types of professionals prepares them to handle both conditions. (This may not be true outside of the United States.) Because of cooperation between optometrists and ophthalmologists, the quality of care depends more on the abilities of the individual doctors than it does what type of professional they are.
Orthoptists specialize in the diagnosis and management of problems with eye movement and coordination, such as misalignment of the visual axis, binocular vision problems, and pre/post surgical care of strabismus patients. They do not directly treat ocular disease with medications or surgery. Orthoptists treat patients using optical aids and eye exercises and primarily work alongside doctors to co-manage binocular vision treatment, but also often do eye and vision testing.
All three types of professional perform screenings for common ocular problems affecting children (such as amblyopia and strabismus) and adults (such as cataracts, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy). All are required to participate in ongoing continuing education courses to maintain licensure and stay current on the latest standards of care.
hat is an Ophthalmologist?
An ophthalmologist is a medical doctor who has undertaken additional specialist training in the diagnosis and management of disorders of the eye and visual system.
Ophthalmology training equips eye specialists to provide the full spectrum of eye care, including the prescription of glasses and contact lenses, medical treatment and complex microsurgery.
Many ophthalmologists are also involved in scientific research into causes and cures for eye diseases and vision problems.
What is the difference between an ophthalmologist, optometrist and orthoptist?
All are eye care professionals, but only an ophthalmologist is a medically trained specialist.
Optometrists examine eyes, give advice on visual problems, and prescribe and fit glasses or contact lenses. If eye disease is detected, an optometrist will refer patients to an ophthalmologist for further management. In certain circumstances, ophthalmologists and optometrists work collaboratively in the care of patients, especially those with chronic eye diseases.
The typical training for an optometrist in Australia and New Zealand includes:
• 5 years at university leading to a degree in optometry.
• 1 year of pre-registration experience.
Orthoptists are allied health professionals who are trained to diagnose and manage disorders of eye movements and associated vision problems. They are also trained to perform investigative testing of eye diseases. They work in a diverse range of settings, including hospitals, private practices, low vision and rehabilitation settings and research centres.
Orthoptic training is undertaken in a 4 year Bachelor of Health Sciences/ Master of Orthoptics university degree.
What is the purpose of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists?
RANZCO is the professional body for ophthalmologists and is responsible for developing and maintaining standards in ophthalmology training and practice.
The activities of the College include:
RANZCO is not a regulatory body; it does not have a role in disciplinary actions and is unable to act on complaints about individual doctors. This is the responsibility of the Australian Health Practitioner Regulatory Authority (AHPRA) in Australia and the Medical Council of New Zealand (MCNZ) in New Zealand. AHPRA and MCNZ hold the central registers of doctors' qualifications, including the specialist register in Australia and the vocational register in New Zealand. The specialist or vocational register lists doctors who have completed specialist training, including surgical training.
Title=Intet's Ultrabook 
Whether you're making a statement with its stylish design or making progress with its responsive technology, the U410 Ultrabook from Lenovo is mobile enough to go wherever you want, powerful enough to do whatever you want, and dependable enough to use whenever you want.
Asus Zenbook UX21E-ESL4 11.6” Silver Ultrabook (1.6 GHz Intel Core i5-2467M, 4 GB DDR3, 128 GB SSD, Intel HD Graphics 3000, Windows 7 Home Premium, LED Backlight)
The ASUS Zenbook UX21 11.6-inch ultrabook is a PC that's hard to top...
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Lenovo IdeaPad U410 14" Blue Ultrabook (1.7 GHz Intel Core i5-3317U, 8 GB DDR3, 500 GB HDD, NVIDIA GeForce 610M, Windows 7 Home Premium, LED Backlight)
Whether you're making a statement with its stylish design or making...
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Dell Inspiron 14z 14" Black Notebook - Customizable
Live your busy life with the thin, sleek and fun Inspiron 14z. Its...
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Apple MacBook Air 11.6" Silver Ultraportable Notebook
The MacBook Air features the Intel Core i5 dual-core processor, high-speed
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Dell XPS 17 17" Silver Notebook
Powerful graphics. Powerfully smart. The XPS 17 laptop has what it takes...
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As an Ultrabook, the Acer TimelineUltra M5 disappoints. It's simply too big (with a 15.6-inch screen) and too heavy (at 4.5 pounds, not including accessories), to fit comfortably in the Ultrabook category. If anything, decision to market this model as an Ultrabook puts the TimelineUltra M5 a disadvantage, since it can't compete with the sexy sleekness of smaller, lighter Ultrabooks.
We should instead call the TimelineUltra M5 what it is: a very good-looking 15.6-inch ultraportable laptop with a discrete graphics card.
Our review model, priced at $829 as of July 23, 2012, has excellent specs considering its svelte form. It packs a third-generation, Ivy Bridge-based Intel Core i5-3317U processor, 6GB of RAM, and an Nvidia GeForce GT 640M graphics card. The M5 also has a 500GB hard-disk drive alongside a 20GB solid-state drive, which uses Intel’s Rapid Response SSD caching technology to boot up and resume from hibernate quickly. The M5 runs a 64-bit version of Windows 7 Home Premium.
On PCWorld Labs' WorldBench 7 benchmark tests, the TimelineUltra M5 earned a mark of 104 --not a bad score, but far below the category leader, which happens to be the M5's predecessor, the Acer TimelineUltra M3. Though the M3 carries a second-generation SandyBridge-based Intel processor, the CPU is a more powerful i7, not an i5; and the M3 rode it to a much better WorldBench 7 score of 155.
The M5 lacks the M3's i7 processor, but it has the same Nvidia GeForce GT 640M graphics card, and it performed well on our graphics and gaming measures. In our graphics tests, the M5 managed excellent frame rates ranging from 39.9 frames per second in Crysis 2 (at high quality settings and 1366-by-768-pixel resolution) to 114.7 fps in Dirt 3 (at low quality settings and 800-by-600-pixel resolution). In short, the M5 is among the few ultraportables that should have no problem handling the vast majority of your gaming and graphical needs.
The M5's battery life is very good, too, considering the laptop's screen size. In our tests the battery held out for 7 hours, 24 minutes--about 40 minutes less than the battery life we recorded for the M3.esign: Chassis, Keyboard, Trackpad
Though the M5 fits Intel's broad technical specifications for an Ultrabook--it has an Intel processor, is less than 21mm thick, and resumes quickly from hibernation--it is nothing like the tantalizing slivers of the first wave of Ultrabooks.
The M5 looks exactly like its immediate predecessor (the M3), and it's housed in a slim, dark silver, brushed aluminum chassis. The cover is simple, with a small raised metal Acer logo in the center, and the screen is slim and sturdy on its hinges. The interior features graceful lines with a wide wrist-rest area, a full-size keyboard, a full-size 10-key number pad, and a large off-center trackpad.
Both the keyboard and the trackpad are comfortable to use, though the keyboard suffers from smallish, slightly stiff keys. The trackpad has no discrete buttons--instead, the lower half of the pad depresses, much as the glass trackpads on Apple's MacBook line do. The trackpad is accurate and smooth, and it supports multitouch gestures. It's a little too sensitive when you aren't using it, however, which causes the mouse to jump around on the screen as you type.
Like the M3, the M5 has all of its key ports located in the rear: three USB ports (two 3.0, one 2.0), an ethernet jack, an HDMI-out port, and a Kensington lock slot. The left side of the machine is reserved for the M5's tray-loading DVD drive, and the right side of the machine sports an SD Card slot and a combination headphone/microphone jack. The power button is located on the front of the machine.
Screen and Speakers
The biggest draw--and regrettably, the biggest disappointment--of the TimelineUltra M5 is its 15.6-inch screen. The M5's big display has a native resolution of 1366 by 768 pixels--the same resolution you'll see on much smaller computers, such as the 11-inch MacBook Air. On such a large display, that resolution leaves individual pixels easily visible and makes text and other lines look a little fuzzy. I'm not sure why Acer decided to keep the resolution so low, especially given the processor upgrade and the nice graphics card.
Once you gt past its low resolution, the screen looks pretty good. Colors seemed accurate, though a bit washed out at times (especially at higher brightness settings), and off-axis viewing angles were solid. Video looked and sounded fine on the M5, with virtually no artifacting or noise, even in darker, action-packed scenes.
The TimelineUltra M5's audio was especially impressive, managing to sound both loud and full-bodied at the highest volume setting.
The TimelineUltra M5 runs on a newer but weaker processor than the M3 used, and Acer pulled the older model's speedy 256GB SSD in favor of a 500GB HDD with a 20GB SSD boot drive. The result is slower overall performance, which is reflected in the 50-point difference in the systems' WB7 scores.
Another disappointment: Acer shortchanged the TimelineUltra M5's 15.6-inch screen with 1366-by-768-pixel resolution--a huge letdown on a system with nice graphics performance.
The only real upgrades are in the ports, and those aren't great. You now get two USB 3.0 ports and one USB 2.0 port (the M3 had one USB 3.0 port and two USB 2.0 ports), and the headphone/microphone jack is now located on the right side of the machine (the M3's jack was located, inconveniently, on the rear). But these minor port upgrades aren't enough to justify calling the M5 a winner.
Title=Poker Online 
US Online Poker Sites for US Players
Is US Online Poker Legal? Though United States poker sites aren't exactly abundant at the moment there are still some high quality poker sites for US players available where you can play Texas Hold'em for real money. The best US poker sites do require a little hunting to find. In the meantime, the current selection of US online poker sites that continue to accept USA players will depend on the future legal issues of online poker in the United States of America. The passing of the UIGEA (Unlawful Internet Gaming Enforcement Act) was aimed at financial institutions and calls for them to block funds transfers to (deposits) and from (cashouts) from US online poker sites by US players.
Notice: Online Poker US Players - Please remember that there are still plenty of legal, real money US poker sites accepting US players!
Best Poker Sites for US Players
Many Americans are searching for US legal poker sites because the law is not clear. Online poker for US players is legal except in the following states where you will want to consult the relevant state legislation: Illinois, Indiana, Louisiana, Michigan, Nevada, New Jersey, New York, Oregon, South Dakota, Washington and Wisconsin. In many of these states it merely restricts rooms from operating there, but does not prevent players from using offshore websites. Cardschat has reviewed the best legal poker sites for US players so that our United States poker players can enjoy real money legal US online poker and casino games in the USA. These include www.Bodog.com (Casino & Sports Betting available), now called Bovada.lv (Las Vegas), Carbon Poker for Americans, as well as the many places linked above.
For non-US poker sites or Europeans we have reviews and bonus offers for rooms like Titan Poker and 888 Poker. If you're from the United Kingdom and are interested in playing on line poker from the UK visit the UK Poker Sites website.
Looking for more real money US online poker sites that are legal in the USA? For more of the best US poker sites for US players see our internet poker bonus page and best online poker games guide.
By Poker Pro Matt Vengrin
1. Play good starting hands. Only play hands like AA, KK, QQ, JJ, TT, 99, AK, Aqs until you get comfortable playing the rest. They are easier to play and don’t get you into as much trouble as the KJ, KQ etc.
2. Play within your bankroll. Do not take shots, play in games you are comfortable playing in. I remember when I started I played 5-10 NL one time with only 2k in my account. I was super scared, won a pot and left but I easily could have lost. I definitely was not comfortable in that game. Even today I play 1-2 and 2-4 NL and PLO sometimes because I feel super comfortable in them.
I would suggest leaving yourself some outs as they say. If you lose a session you cannot go broke ideally. So with 50 dollars id probably leave myself with at least 20 buy ins to the game, so you could buy in for $2.50, but lets just say $2. So you could play 1-2 cent cash games. These have a buy in of 2 dollars, and you can move up if you win.
I normally suggest having 100 buyins for tournaments if you are playing professionally. If you are playing for fun, you could probably play 2-5 dollar tournaments. I remember when I started I had 55 bucks or so, played a 3 dollar buyin with 1700 ppl and won it for like 700 dollars, was a huge boost.
3. Do not tilt. I cannot stress this enough, I believe mental stability is paramount while playing poker, especially no limit holdem. The ones with the clearest minds will definitely prevail over the long run. That's what I accredit most of my success to.
4. Learn all the games. I did this when I started out, if there were no good no limit games but a really good mixed game I would play the mixed game because I knew how. It gives you a chance to take a soft spot and exploit it, something most NL players are not capable of. I like HORSE and I think that’s a good place for people to start.
5. How to spot a fish. Generally, while playing cash or tournaments people who limp generally are not too good. When I see a limper in my games, ill usually try to isolate him and play pots against him. For example, I was playing a 2500 satalite to the WPT championship a few days ago and there was one guy who had shown down 92s after he limped and hit a hand. He limped and I isolated 3 times in a row, the third time getting his stack.
Bankroll management is the process in which a player decides how much of their money they should risk in any given game, specifically in regards to poker. If you are simply playing for fun, then play for whatever stakes make you happy. Otherwise, if you are trying to maximize your chances of growing your bankroll in the long term, then read on.
Never play with scared money
The first rule of bankroll management is to never play with scared money. By scared money I mean money that you need for important things like rent, food, or other necessities. Not only could this ruin you life, but it will undoubtedly effect your play, usually for the worse. Your bankroll should be an amount of money set aside specifically for poker.
Let your bankroll always determine your limits
After some minor adjustments, your bankroll should determine the stakes in the game you sit down at, every time you sit down. This rule is very simple in theory, but gets a little complicated when you look at the details. The purpose of doing this is so that when you inevitably take a big downward swing, it usually won't bankrupt you. Your starting bankroll should be whatever you are comfortable with (i.e. an amount you won't cry about if you lose it). With sites like Full Tilt Poker you can select from games as low as 1¢/2¢, so you should be able to follow these rules even with a very small deposit.
Limit vs. no-limit cash games
In limit cash games, the general consensus seems to be that you should have a bankroll of about 300 big bets. So if your bankroll is $150, then a good game to play would be .25/.50. No limit cash games are much more volatile, so when you do have a bad run of variance, you'll need more of a cushion. A typical no limit cash game player should have about 20 maximum buyins in his/her roll. The max buyin is usually 100 times the big blind, so that works out to 2,000 big blinds if you want to think of it that way. So if your bankroll is $500 a good limit to play would be .10/.25. I realize that sounds like peanuts, but no limit cash games can get bloody very quickly.
Sit and go's and Multi-table tournaments
For sit and go tournaments (often referred to as SnG's), a rule of thumb is to have at least 25 buyins in your bankroll before going for one of these tournaments. Multi-table tournaments (MTT's) with fields as high as 5,000 players are exceedingly volatile investments. A very good player is very likely to only cash in about 15% of these large tournaments, however if you do cash, the winnings could be gigantic. MTT entries should be few and far between if you even play them at all. If you were really serious about playing MTTs regularly for long term profit, I think a bankroll in the range of 60-100 buyins sounds reasonable.
Styles of play
The numbers given so far are only guidelines, as your style of play will effect these numbers greatly. If you are a winning, solid conservative player, you may be able to lower your threshold of 300x big bets in limit down to 200x since your variance should be more stable. Note that this will put you in a high risk / high reward game. On the other hand if you are a hyper-aggressive type player, you may need to up it to 500x to handle those bigger swings. Additionally, if you play poker for a living, you may want to up it to 500x just to take things conservatively in order to make sure you can easily pay bills even after a losing streak. Again, the opposite of that position would be if you are willing to make more risky play in the hopes of building your bankroll quickly, or if you can easily afford to lose your entire bankroll without a sweat. In these cases you can consider dropping your threshold down to 200x for limit cash games as an example. However you slice it, figure out your metric and stick to it. Y
ou do not want to suddenly change these requirements because you think you are doing very well or you need to 'make up' some losses. Any changes should come slowly so that you can account for variance.
After you have established your metric, changing levels should be a no brainer. Once your bankroll can support higher limits, move up. If you have taken some losses, then don't be too proud to move down. Moving down in limits happens to the very best players, don't let it effect your play. Chances are that in the long run, even with a big cushion in your bankroll, you will probably even go bust at some point. Most professional poker players have a story about going bust, just don't let it happen to you suddenly. You would have to be some sort of superman to go from 1¢/2¢ up to $30/$60 without having to go down in levels at some point. Of course your available games will vary depending on which site you decide to play, so if the site you are playing on doesn't offer a $2 + $0.20 SnG game, you should stay down in the $1 + $0.10 buyin games until your bankroll is ready for the $5 + $0.50 game. He is an example metric for a tight aggressive SnG player: